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Related post: *Tinctura Colchici Seminis (Tr. Colch. Sem.), U.S.P.; Tr. Colch., B.P.; Tincture of Colchicum (Seed). 10 per cent. Dose, 2 c.c., 30 minims, U.S.P.; 0.3 to i c.c., 5 to Purchase Mebendazole Online 15 Mebendazole Online minims, B.P. Maximum dose, 2 c.c., 30 minims. 438 MANUAL OF PHARMACOLOGY Colehicina, U.S. P.; C^HsdNOs. Pale yellow amorphous scales or pale yellow amorphous powder, turning darker on exposure to Mebendazole 100mg light; odorless or nearly so. Sol. in water (i : 22); freely sol. in ale. Dose, 0.5 mg., J^ 2 o g r -> U.S. P. APOMORPHIN General Statement. Apomorphin is an artificial alkaloid, formed by dehydrating morphin through the action of concentrated mineral acids: Ci 7 Hi 9 NO 3 -H 2 O = C 17 H 17 NO 2 Morphin Apomorphin This causes profound changes in both the structure and actions. The peculiar narcotic effect of morphin is almost completely lost. In its place there Where To Buy Mebendazole appears an excitant effect on the nervous centers. In therapeutic doses, this is confined to the vomiting center, apomorphin being the preeminent Buy Cheap Mebendazole centrally acting emetic, useful especially for hypo- dermic administration, in poisoning, etc. It is not so useful as a nauseant. The emesis is accompanied by the usual side effects of vomiting. It often causes considerable general depression, and sometimes dangerous cardiac depression. Smaller doses produce a prompt hypnotic effect under certain condi- tions (acute alcoholism). Larger doses produce excitement, convulsions, and death by asphyxia. On direct application it paralyzes the heart and skeletal muscles. THE EMETIC ACTION OF APOMORPHIN IS CENTRAL The specific emetic action of apomorphin was announced by Gee, 1869, in the same year as the discovery of the substance by Matthieson and Wright. The emesis is produced by very small doses and is very prompt, with but little preliminary nausea. The fact that there is Buy Mebendazole Online no evidence of gastric irritation (Gee, 1869), and that apomorphin is more effective hypodermically than by mouth (Siebert, Order Mebendazole 1871) suggested strongly that its emetic action is not a reflex from irritation of the pharyngeal or gastric mucosa, as is the action of most emetics; but that the apomor- phin emesis must result from a central action, a direct stimulation of the hypothetical vomiting center in the medulla. Other evidence also tended strongly to the same conclusion. The absolute proof has been brought by Eggleston and Hatcher, 1912, who found that the typical phenomena of vomiting could be produced by the injection of apomorphin into animals from Where Can I Buy Mebendazole which the whole alimentary canal had been removed, from the cardia to the anus. These eviscerated animals show the retching, the vomiting movements, and the expulsion of mucus from the mouth and esophagus. Direct application of the apomorphin to the esophagus or pharynx does not produce vomiting. OTHER EVIDENCE THAT EMESIS IS CENTRAL Absence of Irritant Action. Siebert, 1871, gave daily emetic doses of apomorphin to dogs for six weeks, and found no signs of any inflammation at autopsy. Reichert, 1879, showed that Order Mebendazole Online solutions do not produce irritation even on the sensitive conjunctiva. Greater Efficiency on Hypodermic Administration. Siebert and all subsequent workers showed that administration by mouth requires larger doses and a longer time to produce vomiting. Eggleston and Hatcher found that dogs require by vein only ${25 of the oral dose, and vomiting occurs in one-half the time. The effective doses are (milligrams per kilo) : by mouth, 5.7 in four to ten minutes; hypodermic, 0.2 in two and APOMORPHIN 439 one-half to ten minutes; intramuscular, 0.05 to 0.075 m three to seven minutes; intravenous (without anesthesia), 0.05. Division of Both Vagi. These constitute the sole afferent paths for the reflex of local emetics (Openchowski, 1889). With locally acting emetics therefore vomiting can not Purchase Mebendazole occur if both vagi are divided, but this does not prevent the apomorphin emesis (Siebert, Harnack, and others; the contrary results of some investigations are explained by experimental errors constrained positions of animals). The splanchnics do not carry sensory fibers. Apomorphin is Not Re excreted into Stomach. Many locally acting emetics pro- duce vomiting even when injected hypodermically or intravenously, by being excreted into the saliva or stomach, and there producing the local action, although this naturally requires larger doses than oral administration (Tartar emetic, etc.; Kleimann and Simonowitsch, 1872). Reichert believed that apomorphin is also reexcreted; but this could not be confirmed by subsequent workers, and has been disproved by Eggleston and Hatcher. Movements of Stomach in Emesis. This has been investigated in cats by the X-ray method (Cannon, 1898). The same events follow apomorphin and mustard ; the first effect is Mebendazole Buy total inhibition of the tone of the cardial portion, which becomes a flaccid bag. The pyloric end is shut off by a deep contraction ring. The contents are then expelled by sudden contraction of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. As the expulsions are repeated, the gastric Buy Mebendazole walls tighten around the remaining contents. Replacing Stomach by Pig's Bladder. Magendie found apomorphin effective under this condition (Magnus). This would not exclude the possibility of intestinal irritation. Direct Application to the Vomiting Center. Thumas, 1891, found that the applica- tion of apomorphin to a limited area of the medulla produces vomiting. Location of the Vomiting Center. Openchowski, 1889, believes that the center actually stimulated by apomorphin lies in the corpora quadrigemina, and that Mebendazole 100 Mg Thumas stimulated merely the Generic Mebendazole efferent fibers on their way to the splanchnics. He also believes that the quadrigemina are not concerned in reflex vomiting. The nature of the central connections of the vomiting reflex is too obscure for further discussion. Movements of Excised Stomach. Schultz, 1886, found that apomorphin and other emetics produce strong reversed peristalsis in excised stomach; but Batelli, 1896, finds the same movements without giving any drugs, and they may be attributed to asphyxia. Cocainization of Pharyngeal Region. Valenti, 1911, asserts that emesis, by apo- morphin as well as by local agents, is prevented by cocainizing a certain pharyngeal area which controls the cardial sphincter. He suggests that apomorphin increases the
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